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Oxidative substrates Print E-mail
Cytosolic concentrations of various mitochondrial substrates.

Metabolite Concentration (mM)a Reference
aConcentrations in mM were calculated from µmol/g dry weight by dividing the reported value by 3.7 (conversion coefficient from dry to wet tissue weight) and further by 0.4 (volume of the cytosol in ml per g tissue wet weight) as described in 11; conversion from µmol/g wet weight was done by dividing the values by 0.4.
AcetoAcetate


1.78 rat liver12
Acetyl-CoA


0.014 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

0.04 liver cytosol16
ADP


0.192 - 0.431 rat/mouse brain16

0.54 liver cytosol16

0.74 HELA cells with glucose8

0.95 rat brain10

2.5 rat liver11

2.83 rat liver cytosol14

3.11 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

3.25 pig heart15

3.58 rat liver12
a-Ketoglutarate


0.066 pig heart15

0.15 - 0.055 rat/mouse brain16

0.263 rat brain10

0.304 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

0.318 mouse brain4

0.363 rat liver13

0.382 HELA cells with glucose8

0.598 rat brain9

0.84 liver cytosol16
Aspartate


2.03 - 2.5 rat/mouse brain16

0.68 liver cytosol16

2.4 rat liver11

7.15 rat brain9

9 rat brain10
ATP


1.7 - 2.0 rat/mouse brain16

2.2 human brain 2

3.01 liver cytosol16

4.4 HELA cells with glucose8

4.45 rat liver11

4.88 rat liver cytosol14

5.38 rat liver12

6.9 rat brain10

13.2 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

15 pig heart15
b-Hydroxybutyrate


0.055 rat brain10

0.36 rat liver13

4.75 rat liver12
Citrate


0.28 HELA cells with glucose8

0.4 liver cytosol16

0.642 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

0.743 rat brain10

0.818 mouse brain4

1.03 pig heart15
CoA


0.05 liver cytosol16
Fumarate


0.041 rat/mouse brain16

0.147 pig heart15

0.183 mouse brain4
Glutamate


3.38 - 8.24 rat/mouse brain16

5.29 liver cytosol16

6.025 rat liver13

15.7 HELA cells with glucose8

29.93 rat brain10

30.25 rat brain9
Isocitrate


0.006 rat/mouse brain16

0.012 HELA cells with glucose8

0.04 mouse brain4

0.068 rat heart (glucose perfused)16
Malate


0.22 - 0.28 rat/mouse brain16

0.203 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

0.355 pig heart15

0.4 liver cytosol16

0.69 rat brain9

0.845 rat brain10

1.085 mouse brain4

1.32 HELA cells grown on glucose8

2 rat liver11
NAD+


0.71 hepatocyte cytosol 16

1.048 pig heart15
NAD+/NADH cyt


515 rat/mouse brain16

696 rat brain10

714 rat brain9

715 rat liver12
NAD+/NADH mit


0.52 rat brain10

1.38 rat/mouse brain16

1.52 rat brain9

7.15 rat liver12

7.3 rat liver13
NADH


0.223 pig heart15

0.33 hepatocyte cytosol16
NADP+


0.002 hepatocyte cytosol16
NADPH


0.36 hepatocyte cytosol16
Oxaloacetate


0.002 - 0.004 rat/mouse brain16

0.008 liver cytosol16

0.01 mouse brain4

0.014 rat brain9

0.018 rat brain10

0.095 rat heart (glucose perfused)16
Inorganic Phosphate


5.2 rat brain10

12.075 rat liver12
Pyruvate


0.053 rat liver12

0.06 guinea pig heart (glucose+insulin perfused)7

0.065 rat liver11

0.09 cultured neurons6

0.17 rat brain10

0.228 mouse brain4

0.238 rat liver cytosol14

0.248 pig heart15

0.29 rat brain9

0.325 rat liver13

0.33 adipose tissue5
sn-Glycerol-3-Phosphate


0.112 guinea pig heart (glucose+insulin perfused)7

0.15 rat brain10

0.395 rat liver cytosol14
Succinate


0.504 rat/mouse brain16

0.535 pig heart15

1.715 mouse brain4
Succinyl-CoA


0.338 rat heart (glucose perfused)16

References
1. Gjedde, A. The relation between brain function and cerebral blood flow and metabolism. In Cerebrovascular Disease (H. H. Batjer, Ed.) 1997, 23–40. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.
2. Roth, K., and Weiner, M. W. Determination of cytosolic ADP and AMP concentrations and the free energy of ATP hydrolysis in human muscle and brain tissues with 31P NMR spectroscopy. Magn. Reson. Med. 1991 22: 505–511.
3. Buxton, R. B., and Frank, L. R. A model for the coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural stimulation. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1997 17: 64–72.
4.Goldberg N. D., Passoneau J. V., and Lowry 0. H. Effects of changes in brain metabolism on the levels of citric acid cycle intermediates. J. Biol. Chem. 1966 241, 3997-4003.
5. Berman BG, Halperin ML. Effect of insulin on Pyruvate metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue of the rat. Correlation of intracellular Pyruvate contents and Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Biochem J. 1973 134(4):885-9.
6. Desagher S, Glowinski J, Premont J. Pyruvate protects neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity. J Neurosci. 1997 17(23):9060-7.
7. Bunger R. Compartmented Pyruvate in perfused working heart. Am J Physiol. 1985 249(3 Pt 2):H439-49.
8. Reitzer LJ, Wice BM, Kennell D. Evidence that glutamine, not sugar, is the major energy source for cultured HeLa cells. J Biol Chem. 1979 254(8):2669-76.
9. Miller AL, Hawkins RA, Veech RL. The mitochondrial redox state of rat brain. J Neurochem. 1973 20(5):1393-400.
10. Howse DC, Duffy TE. Control of the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides in the rat cerebral cortex. Effect of electroshock-induced seizures. J Neurochem. 1975 24(5):935-40.
11. Stubbs M, Vignais PV, Krebs HA. Is the adenine nucleotide translocator rate-limiting for oxidative phosphorylation? Biochem J. 1978 172(2):333-42.
12. Stubbs M, Veech RL, Krebs HA. Control of the redox state of the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide couple in rat liver cytoplasm. Biochem J. 1972 126(1):59-65.
13. Williamson DH, Lund P, Krebs HA. The redox state of free nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of rat liver. Biochem J. 1967 103(2):514-27
14. Veech RL, Raijman L, Krebs HA. Equilibrium relations between the cytoplasmic adenine nucleotide system and nicotinamide-adenine nucleotide system in rat liver. Biochem J. 1970 117(3):499-503.
15. Sharma N, Okere IC, Brunengraber DZ, McElfresh TA, King KL, Sterk JP, Huang H, Chandler MP, Stanley WC. Regulation of Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and citric acid cycle intermediates during high cardiac power generation. J Physiol. 2005 562(Pt 2):593-603.
16. Williamson JR, Corkey BE. Assay of citric acid cycle intermediates and related compounds--update with tissue metabolite levels and intracellular distribution. Methods Enzymol. 1979 55:200-22.
Last Updated ( Tuesday, 10 July 2007 )
 

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